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Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Day, Felix R.; Sulem, Patrick; Ruth, Katherine S.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Hinds, David A.; Esko, Tonu; Elks, Cathy E.; Altmaier, Elisabeth; He, Chunyan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Schick, Ursula M.; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Deborah J.; Traglia, Michela; Wang, Carol A.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Barbieri, Caterina; Coviello, Andrea D.; Cucca, Francesco; Demerath, Ellen W.; Dunning, Alison M.; Gandin, Ilaria; Grove, Megan L.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Hofman, Albert; Huang, Jinyan; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Karasik, David; Kriebel, Jennifer; Lange, Ethan M.; Lange, Leslie A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Li, Xin; Luan, Jian'an; Maegi, Reedik; Morrison, Alanna C.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pirie, Ailith; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Reiner, Alex P.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Sala, Cinzia F.; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Robert A.; Stoeckl, Doris; Visser, Jenny A.; Voelker, Uwe; Vozzi, Diego; Wilson, James G.; Zygmunt, Marek; Boerwinkle, Eric; Buring, Julie E.; Crisponi, Laura; Easton, Douglas F.; Hayward, Caroline; Hu, Frank B.; Liu, Simin; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E.; Ridker, Paul M.; Strauch, Konstantin; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Toniolo, Daniela; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Ulivi, Sheila; Voelzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Wellons, Melissa; Franceschini, Nora; Chasman, Daniel I.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Murray, Anna; Stefansson, Kari; Murabito, Joanne M.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R. B.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Kerrison, Nicola D.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Sims, Matt; Barroso, Ines; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I.; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boeing, Heiner; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Navarro, Carmen; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Ramon Quiros, J.; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Slimani, Nadia; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; A, Daphne L. van der; Schouw, Yvonne T. van der; Riboli, Elio; Smith, Blair H.; Campbell, Archie; Deary, Ian J.; McIntosh, Andrew M. (2015): Rare coding variants and X-linked loci associated with age at menarche. In: Nature Communications, Vol. 6, 7756
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Abstract

More than 100 loci have been identified for age at menarche by genome-wide association studies;however, collectively these explain only similar to 3% of the trait variance. Here we test two overlooked sources of variation in 192, 974 European ancestry women: low-frequency proteincoding variants and X-chromosome variants. Five missense/nonsense variants (in ALMS1/LAMB2/TNRC6A/TACR3/PRKAG1) are associated with age at menarche (minor allele frequencies 0.08-4.6%;effect sizes 0.08-1.25 years per allele;P<5 x 10(-8)). In addition, we identify common X-chromosome loci at IGSF1 (rs762080, P = 9.4 x 10(-13)) and FAAH2 (rs5914101, P = 4.9 x 10(-10)). Highlighted genes implicate cellular energy homeostasis, post-transcriptional gene silencing and fatty-acid amide signalling. A frequently reported mutation in TACR3 for idiopathic hypogonatrophic hypogonadism (p.W275X) is associated with 1.25-year-later menarche (P = 2.8 x 10(-11)),illustrating the utility of population studies to estimate the penetrance of reportedly pathogenic mutations. Collectively, these novel variants explain similar to 0.5% variance, indicating that these overlooked sources of variation do not substantially explain the 'missing heritability' of this complex trait.

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