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Siegl, Daniel; Midura, Emily F.; Annecke, Thorsten; Conzen, Peter; Caldwell, Charles C. and Tschoep, Johannes (2015): The Effect of Ghrelin upon the Early Immune Response in Lean and Obese Mice during Sepsis.
In: PLOS ONE 10(4), UNSP e0122211 [PDF, 2MB]

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Introduction It is well established that obesity-related hormones can have modulatory effects associated with the immune response. Ghrelin, a hormone mainly derived from endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, regulates appetite, energy expenditure and body weight counteracting leptin, a hormone mainly derived from adipocytes. Additionally, receptors of both have been detected on immune cells and demonstrated an immune regulatory function during sepsis. Methods In the present study, the effect of peripheral ghrelin administration on early immune response and survival was investigated with lean mice and mice with diet-induced obesity using cecal ligation and puncture to induce sepsis. Results In the obese group, we found that ghrelin treatment improved survival, ameliorated hypothermia, and increased hyperleptinemia as compared to the lean controls. We also observed that ghrelin treatment divergently regulated serum IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha concentrations in both lean and obese septic mice. Ghrelin treatment initially decreased but later resulted in increased bacteriaemia in lean mice while having no impact upon obese mice. Similarly, ghrelin treatment increased early neutrophil oxidative burst while causing a decrease 48 hours after sepsis inducement. Conclusion In conclusion, as the immune response to sepsis temporally changes, ghrelin treatment differentially mediates this response. Specifically, we observed that ghrelin conferred protective effects during the early phase of sepsis, but during the later phase deteriorated immune response and outcome. These adverse effects were more pronounced upon lean mice as compared to obese mice.

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