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Eschbach, Ralf S.; Fendler, Wolfgang P.; Kazmierczak, Philipp M.; Hacker, Marcus; Rominger, Axel; Carlsen, Janette; Hirner-Eppeneder, Heidrun; Schuster, Jessica; Moser, Matthias; Havla, Lukas; Schneider, Moritz J.; Ingrisch, Michael; Spaeth, Lukas; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Cyran, Clemens C. (2015): Correlation of Perfusion MRI and F-18-FDG PET Imaging Biomarkers for Monitoring Regorafenib Therapy in Experimental Colon Carcinomas with Immunohistochemical Validation.
In: PLOS ONE 10(2), e0115543
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Abstract

Objectives To investigate a multimodal, multiparametric perfusion MRI/F-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (F-18-FDG)-PET imaging protocol for monitoring regorafenib therapy effects on experimental colorectal adenocarcinomas in rats with immunohistochemical validation. Materials and Methods Human colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts (HT-29) were implanted subcutaneously in n = 17 (n = 10 therapy group;n = 7 control group) female athymic nude rats (Hsd: RH-Foxn1(mu)). Animals were imaged at baseline and after a one-week daily treatment protocol with regorafenib (10 mg/kg bodyweight) using a multimodal, multiparametric perfusion MRI/F-18-FDG-PET imaging protocol. In perfusion MRI, quantitative parameters of plasma flow (PF, mL/100 mL/min), plasma volume (PV,%) and endothelial permeability-surface area product (PS, mL/100 mL/min) were calculated. In F-18-FDG-PET, tumor-to-background-ratio (TTB) was calculated. Perfusion MRI parameters were correlated with TTB and immunohistochemical assessments of tumor microvascular density (CD-31) and cell proliferation (Ki-67). Results Regorafenib significantly (p<0.01) suppressed PF (81.1 +/- 7.5 to 50.6 +/- 16.0 mL/100mL/min), PV (12.1 +/- 3.6 to 7.5 +/- 1.6%) and PS (13.6 +/- 3.2 to 7.9 +/- 2.3 mL/100mL/min) as well as TTB (3.4 +/- 0.6 to 1.9 +/- 1.1) between baseline and day 7. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly (p<0.03) lower tumor microvascular density (CD-31, 7.0 +/- 2.4 vs. 16.1 +/- 5.9) and tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67, 434.0 +/- 62.9 vs. 663.0 +/- 98.3) in the therapy group. Perfusion MRI parameters Delta PF, Delta PV and Delta PS showed strong and significant (r = 0.67-0.78;p<0.01) correlations to the PET parameter Delta TTB and significant correlations (r = 0.57-0.67;p<0.03) to immunohistochemical Ki-67 as well as to CD-31-stainings (r = 0.49-0.55;p<0.05). Conclusions A multimodal, multiparametric perfusion MRI/PET imaging protocol allowed for non-invasive monitoring of regorafenib therapy effects on experimental colorectal adenocarcinomas in vivo with significant correlations between perfusion MRI parameters and F-18-FDG-PET validated by immunohistochemistry.