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Mülling, C. K. W.; Bragulla, H. H.; Budras, K. D.; Reese, Sven ORCID: 0000-0002-4605-9791 (1994): Strukturelle Faktoren mit Einfluss auf die Hornqualität und Prädilektionsstellen für Erkrankungen an der Fussungsfläche der Rinderklaue. In: Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, Vol. 136, No. 2: pp. 49-57
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Abstract

The quality of the horn of the cattle hoof varies in the different segments of the ground surface adapted to weight bearing. Horn quality is influenced by the following main factors: the keratin proteins as the most important intracellular factor, the intercellular cementing substance as the intercellular factor, and the architecture of the cluster of horn cells, i.e. the arrangement of horn cells in tubular and intertubular horn. Differences in the structure and composition of these factors and their respective combination determine the different degrees of hardness of hoof horn, which are even palpable. In special places, as i.e. the white zone, the combination of all these above-mentioned factors determines sites of predilection for diseases of the cattle hoof like white line disease.