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Nuss, K.; Hecht, Silke; Maierl, Johann; Weller, R. and Matis, Ulrike (2002): Zur Punktion der Gliedmaßengelenke beim Rind. Teil 1: Schultergliedmaße. In: Tierärztliche Praxis / G, Großtiere, Vol. 30, No. 4: pp. 226-232

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Methods for arthrocentesis of the forelimb have not been fully described in cattle. In particular the caudal recesses of the shoulder joint, the caudomedial recess of the elbow joint and the palmar recesses of the carpal joints have often been overlooked. The aim of this study was to determine optimal sites for arthrocentesis for the diagnosis and treatment of septic arthritis in the forelimb of cattle. Contrastradiography was performed in 35 joints of cadaver limbs from cattle of different age. The contrast medium was injected under high pressure to mimic the joint effusion that occurs under pathological conditions. The arthrographic pictures were then used to determine alternative sites for arthrocentesis, which were subsequently used in 51 clinical cases of forelimb septic arthritis. The following anatomical features and alternative routes should be considered when performing arthrocentesis in the forelimb of cattle: The shoulder joint is best accessed from caudolateral into its caudal recess. In case of septic arthritis, anarthrocentes is of the caudomedial pouch of the elbow joint is indicated for joint lavage. The synovial cavity of the antebrachiocarpal joint includes the accessory carpal bone. The caudal pouches of the carpal joints are large and can serve as pockets for the accumulation of fibrin and pus in the infected joint. In case of mild joint effusion, the fetlock joints are easily reached from proximodorsal.

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