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Vollmerhaus, B.; Roos, H.; Knospe, Clemens (2002): Zur Entstehung und Funktion der Kunde, Infundibulum dentis, an den Schneidezähnen der Pferde. In: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, Vol. 31, No. 1: pp. 53-59
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The enamel cups of equids originated phylogenetically through several phases in Oligocene and Miocene horses, which readjusted from hard to soft leaf food and from double nutrition (leaves and grass) to a pure grass intake. This has been proved experimentally. The resulting construction of the incisor is continually changed on its occlusal surface by erosion according to the pattern of the enamel crests. Referring to the whole incisor tooth, this results in an equid life cycle in which the good grip of the occlusal surface and the efficiency of ingestion favours the young, sexually mature horses, which are at the best age for food intake.