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Saule, C.; Nuss, K.; Köstlin, R. G.; Maierl, Johann; Matis, Ulrike (2005): Ultrasonographische Anatomie des Karpalgelenks des Rindes. In: Tierärztliche Praxis / G, Großtiere, Vol. 33, No. 6: pp. 364-372
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Abstract

Objective: To obtain detailed ultrasonographic images of the bovine carpal joint to serve as a reference. Materials and methods: Twenty-onecarpal joints of slaughtered and 11 of clinically healthy cattle, which varied in age and sex, were examined ultrasonographically. With two exceptions, only one carpus of each animal was scanned. For this purpose, four horizontal and eight vertical planes of the carpal joint were identified using prominent and easily recognisable reference pointson various bones of the joint, thus creating 32 imaginary points at the planes’ intersections. All of these 32 locations were scanned with the transducer held horizontally and then vertically. The visible structures of the resulting 64 ultrasonograms were presented with computer-generated schematics and photos of corresponding cut sections of frozen anatomical specimens. Results: The ultrasonograms from the 32locations together with the corresponding schematics and pictures of frozen specimens represented almost all of the relevant structures present in the bovine carpus. The lateral collateral ligaments, the surface of the bones and the muscles and their insertions and sometimes the tendon sheaths of the carpus could be seen without difficulty. For visualisation of the long abductor muscle, the transducer had to be held at an angle in both vertical and horizontal examination. Some practice was required to visualise the blood vessels and median nerve on the palmar and medial aspects of the carpus. The joint spaces were seen as interruptions in the echogenic lines representing the bone surfaces. The joint capsules could be identified, in specimens, only after theinjection of fluid. Conclusion: The obtained images can be used as a reference for the ultrasonographic examination of healthy or diseased carpal joints in cattle. Clinical relevance: The images acquired in the present study are valuable for understanding the complexity of the carpal joint and its common pathological conditions.