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Berisha, Bajram; Schams, Dieter; Rodler, Daniela; Pfaffl, Michael W. (2016): Angiogenesis in The Ovary - The Most Important Regulatory Event for Follicle and Corpus Luteum Development and Function in Cow - An Overview. In: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, Vol. 45, No. 2: pp. 124-130
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In the ovary, the development of new capillaries from pre-existing ones (angiogenesis) is a complex event regulated by numerous local factors. The dominant regulators of angiogenesis in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea are the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), angiopoietin (ANPT) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family members. Antral follicles in our study were classified according to the oestradiol-17-beta (E2) content in follicular fluid (FF) and were divided into five classes (E2 < 0.5, 0.5–5, 5–20, 20–180 and >180 ng/ml FF). The corresponding sizes of follicles were 5–7, 8–10, 10–13, 12–14 and >14 mm, respectively. Follicle tissue was separated in theca interna (TI) and granulosa cells (GC). The corpora lutea (CL) in our study were assigned to the following stages: days 1–2, 3–4, 5–7, 8–12 13–16 and >18 of the oestrous cycle and months 1–2, 3–4, 6–7 and >8 of pregnancy. The dominant regulators were measured at mRNA and protein expression levels; mRNA was quantified by RT-qPCR, hormone concentrations by RIA or EIA and their localization by immunohistochemistry. The highest expression for VEGF-A, FGF-2, IGF-1 and IGF-2, ANPT-2/ANPT-1 and HIF-1-alpha was found during final follicle maturation and in CL during the early luteal phase (days 1–4) followed by a lower plateau afterwards. The results suggest the importance of these factors for angiogenesis and maintenance of capillary structures for final follicle maturation, CL development and function.