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Knospe, Clemens (1992): Gibt es eine innere Zungenmuskulatur beim Papagei? In: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, Vol. 21, No. 1: pp. 65-67
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The result of this study shows that the tongue of the parrot hasvoluntary muscle that runs dorsally to the apex of the tongue. Thismusculature can be regarded as evidence that a reduced internalmusculature exists.