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Gunsser, I.; Hänichen, T.; Maierl, Johann (1999): Leberegelbefall bei Neuweltkameliden: Parasitologie, Pathologie: Klinik und Therapie. In: Tierärztliche Praxis / G, Großtiere, Vol. 27, No. 3: pp. 187-192
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Abstract

In Llamas and Alpacas infestation with Fasciola hepatica or Dicrocoeliumdendriticum can cause liver damage, sometimes even with lethal outcome.Once infected South American Camelids (SACs) react more sensitively tothese parasites than other domestic ruminants. We report here on thepathology, parasitology, clinics and therapy of this disease. ConcerningDicrocoelium dendriticum we describe own clinical results andtherapeutic outcome in additon to the pathological investigation.According to anatomic corrosion casts, the bile ducts of SACs show moresimilarity with the equine bile system than with the bile system ofdomestic ruminants.