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Schiestl, Robert; Rosenow, Daniela (2016): Prospektion am Kom el-Gir. Einführung in eine neue Siedlung des Deltas. In: Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo, Vol. 72: pp. 169-196
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Abstract

In the course of the project “Landscape archaeology and regional settlement networks around Buto (Tell el-Faracin)” of the German Archaeological Institute Cairo the site of Kom el-Gir, 4 km northeast of Buto (Tell el-Faracin) in the northwestern Delta, was investigated by intensive prospection. The methods used were the analysis of historic maps and satellite imagery, surface surveying, magnetic prospection, auger core drilling and the creation of a digital terrain model. The focus of this paper is a detailed discussion of the surface pottery, which can be assembled into three chronological groups, Late Ptolemaic and early Roman (2nd c BC-early 1st c AD), Roman (1st – 3rd c AD) and Late Roman (4th -7th c AD). The Roman and Late Roman glass from the surface is discussed by D. ROSENOW. The pottery deriving from one auger core (Nr. 12) is also presented. It does not change the general chronological picture gained from surface surveying. Putting this information together, the structure and development of the settlement can be outlined. The settlement has a mostly orthogonal layout. A large, most likely Ptolemaic, temple enclosure, measuring about 176 x 118 in the interior, is surrounded by densely built up domestic areas, which grew much higher than the area of the temple. The temple seems to cut into older settlement layers. To the southeast of the temple area a Roman fort was erected. It is of a rectangular shape with angular towers projecting at the corners and angular bastions placed along the walls. Based on the architecture a dating not before the 2nd half of the 3rd c AD is suggested for the construction of the fort. It represents the first archaeological evidence for a Roman fort from the interior of the Delta.