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Holzgreve, Adrien; Brendel, Matthias; Gu, Song; Carlsen, Janette; Mille, Erik; Böning, Guido; Mastrella, Giorgia; Unterrainer, Marcus; Gildehaus, Franz J.; Rominger, Axel; Bartenstein, Peter; Kälin, Roland E.; Glass, Rainer; Albert, Nathalie L. (2016): Monitoring of Tumor Growth with [F-18]-FET PET in a Mouse Model of Glioblastoma: SUV Measurements and Volumetric Approaches. In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, Vol. 10, 260


Noninvasive tumor growth monitoring is of particular interest for the evaluation of experimental glioma therapies. This study investigates the potential of positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-F-18-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([F-18]-FET) to determine tumor growth in a murine glioblastoma (GBM) model including estimation of the biological tumor volume (BTV), which has hitherto not been investigated in the pre-clinical context. Fifteen GBM bearing mice (GL261) and six control mice (shams) were investigated during 5 weeks by PET followed by autoradiographic and histological assessments. [F-18]-FET PET was quantitated by calculation of maximum and mean standardized uptake values within a universal volume-of-interest (VOI) corrected for healthy background (SUVmax/BG, SUVmean/BG). A partial volume effect correction (PVEC) was applied in comparison to ex vivo autoradiography. BTVs obtained by predefined thresholds for VOI definition (SUV/BG: >= 1.4;>= 1.6;>= 1.8;>= 2.0) were compared to the histologically assessed tumor volume (n = 8). Finally, individual-optimal" thresholds for BTV definition best reflecting the histology were determined. In GBM mice SUVmax/BG and SUVmean/BG clearly increased with time, however at high inter-animal variability. No relevant [F-18]-FET uptake was observed in shams. PVEC recovered signal loss of SUVmean/BG assessment in relation to autoradiography. BTV as estimated by predefined thresholds strongly differed from the histology volume. Strikingly, the individual "optimal" thresholds for BTV assessment correlated highly with SUVmax/BG (rho = 0.97, p < 0.001), allowing SUVmax/BG-based calculation of individual thresholds. The method was verified by a subsequent validation study (n = 15, p = 0.88, p < 0.01) leading to extensively higher agreement of BTV estimations when compared to histology in contrast to predefined thresholds. [F-18]-FET PET with standard SUV measurements is feasible for glioma imaging in the GBM mouse model. PVEC is beneficial to improve accuracy of [F-18]-FET PET SUV quantification. Although SUVmax/BG and SUVmean/BG increase during the disease course, these parameters do not correlate with the respective tumor size. For the first time, we propose a histology-verified method allowing appropriate individual BTV estimation for volumetric in vivo monitoring of tumor growth with [F-18]-FET PET and show that standardized thresholds from routine clinical practice seem to be inappropriate for BTV estimation in the GBM mouse model.