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Busch, Martin; Nadal, Jennifer; Schmid, Matthias; Paul, Katharina; Titze, Stephanie; Hübner, Silvia; Köttgen, Anna; Schultheiss, Ulla T.; Baid-Agrawal, Seema; Lorenzen, Johan; Schlieper, Georg; Sommerer, Claudia; Krane, Vera; Hilge, Robert; Kielstein, Jan T.; Kronenberg, Florian; Wanner, Christoph; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Wolf, Gunter: Glycaemic control and antidiabetic therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease - cross-sectional data from the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) cohort. In: BMC Nephrology 2016, 17:59


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Little is known about practice patterns of anti-diabetic therapy in the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and correlates with glycaemic control. We therefore aimed to analyze current antidiabetic treatment and correlates of metabolic control in a large contemporary prospective cohort of patients with diabetes and CKD. Methods: The German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study enrolled 5217 patients aged 18-74 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or proteinuria >0.5 g/d. The use of diet prescription, oral anti-diabetic medication, and insulin was assessed at baseline. HbA1c, measured centrally, was the main outcome measure. Results: At baseline, DM was present in 1842 patients (35 %) and the median HbA1C was 7.0 % (25th-75th percentile: 6.8-7.9 %), equalling 53 mmol/mol (51, 63);24.2 % of patients received dietary treatment only, 25.5 % oral antidiabetic drugs but not insulin, 8.4 % oral antidiabetic drugs with insulin, and 41.8 % insulin alone. Metformin was used by 18.8 %. Factors associated with an HbA1C level >7.0 % (53 mmol/mol) were higher BMI (OR = 1.04 per increase of 1 kg/m(2), 95 % CI 1.02-1.06), hemoglobin (OR = 1.11 per increase of 1 g/dL, 95 % CI 1.04-1.18), treatment with insulin alone (OR = 5.63, 95 % CI 4.26-7.45) or in combination with oral antidiabetic agents (OR = 4.23, 95 % CI 2.77-6.46) but not monotherapy with metformin, DPP-4 inhibitors, or glinides. Conclusions: Within the GCKD cohort of patients with CKD stage 3 or overt proteinuria, antidiabetic treatment patterns were highly variable with a remarkably high proportion of more than 50 % receiving insulin-based therapies. Metabolic control was overall satisfactory, but insulin use was associated with higher HbA1C levels.