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Weise, Anja; Bhatt, Samarth; Piaszinski, Katja; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Fan, Xiaobo; Altendorf-Hofmann, Annelore; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Chaveerach, Arunrat; de Cioffi, Marcelo Bello; de Oliveira, Edivaldo; Walther, Joachim-U.; Liehr, Thomas; Chaudhuri, Jyoti P. (2016): Chromosomes in a genome-wise order: evidence for metaphase architecture. In: Molecular Cytogenetics 9:36


Background: One fundamental finding of the last decade is that, besides the primary DNA sequence information there are several epigenetic "information-layers" like DNA-and histone modifications, chromatin packaging and, last but not least, the position of genes in the nucleus. Results: We postulate that the functional genomic architecture is not restricted to the interphase of the cell cycle but can also be observed in the metaphase stage, when chromosomes are most condensed and microscopically visible. If so, it offers the unique opportunity to directly analyze the functional aspects of genomic architecture in different cells, species and diseases. Another aspect not directly accessible by molecular techniques is the genome merged from two different haploid parental genomes represented by the homologous chromosome sets. Our results show that there is not only a well-known and defined nuclear architecture in interphase but also in metaphase leading to a bilateral organization of the two haploid sets of chromosomes. Moreover, evidence is provided for the parental origin of the haploid grouping. Conclusions: From our findings we postulate an additional epigenetic information layer within the genome including the organization of homologous chromosomes and their parental origin which may now substantially change the landscape of genetics.