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Kunz, Mathias; Nachbichler, Silke B.; Ertl, Lorenz; Fesl, Gunther; Egensperger, Rupert; Niyazi, Maximilian; Schmid, Irene; Tonn, Jörg Christian; Peraud, Aurelia; Kreth, Friedrich Wilhelm (2016): Early treatment of complex located pediatric low-grade gliomas using iodine-125 brachytherapy alone or in combination with microsurgery. In: Cancer Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 3: pp. 442-453
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Abstract

To analyze efficacy, functional outcome, and treatment toxicity of low-dose rate I-125 brachytherapy (SBT) alone or in combination with best safe resection (in case of larger tumor volumes) as first-line treatment for pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) not suitable for complete resection. Consecutively treated (2000-2014) complex located circumscribed WHO grade I/II PLGGs were included. For small tumors (4cm in diameter) SBT alone was performed;for larger tumors best safe resection and subsequent SBT was chosen. Temporary Iodine-125 seeds were used (median reference dose: 54Gy). Treatment response was estimated with the modified MacDonald criteria. Analysis of functional outcome included ophthalmological, endocrinological and neurological evaluation. Survival was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were obtained from proportional hazards models. Toxicity was categorized according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Fifty-eight patients were included treated either with SBT alone (n=39) or with SBT plus microsurgery (n=19). Five-year progression-free survival was 87%. Two patients had died due to tumor progression. Among survivors, improvement/stabilization/deterioration of functional deficits was seen in 20/14/5 patients, respectively. Complete/partial response had beneficial impact on functional scores (P=0.02). The 5-year estimated risk to receive adjuvant radiotherapy/chemotherapy was 5.2%. The overall early (delayed) toxicity rate was 8.6% (10.3%), respectively. No permanent morbidity occurred. In complex located PLGGs, early SBT alone or combined with best safe resection preserves/improves functional scores and results in tumor control rates usually achieved with complete resection. Long-term analysis is necessary for confirmation of these results.