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Kulkarni, Onkar P.; Lichtnekert, Julia; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Mulay, Shrikant R. (2016): The Immune System in Tissue Environments Regaining Homeostasis after Injury: Is "Inflammation" Always Inflammation? In: Mediators of inflammation, 2856213


Inflammation is a response to infections or tissue injuries. Inflammation was once defined by clinical signs, later by the presence of leukocytes, and nowadays by expression of "proinflammatory" cytokines and chemokines. But leukocytes and cytokines often have rather anti-inflammatory, proregenerative, and homeostatic effects. Is there a need to redefine "inflammation"? In this review, we discuss the functions of "inflammatory" mediators/regulators of the innate immune system that determine tissue environments to fulfill the need of the tissue while regaining homeostasis after injury.