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Engelken, Maximilian; Römer, Benedikt; Drescher, Marcus; Welpe, Isabell M.; Picot, Arnold (2016): Comparing drivers, barriers, and opportunities of business models for renewable energies: A review. In: Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 60: pp. 795-809
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Abstract

This article systematically reviews the emerging field of research on business models for renewable energies, differentiating between developing and industrialized countries. The key findings on developing countries are as follows: first, there is a lack of quantitative data;second, opportunities are driven primarily by unfulfilled basic needs and micro-finance, whereas corruption and weak electricity grids are the main barriers;and third, business models should be replicable. The key findings on industrialized countries are as follows: first, opportunities are driven primarily by climate change mitigation and energy efficiency improvements;second, stuck thought patterns and high costs of energy storage are important barriers;and third, cooperation is a key in future business models to handle increasing complexity. This review reveals implications for researchers and policy-makers. Promising avenues for future research are the analysis of intermodal business models and opportunities concerning energy self-supply and renewable district heating. Policy-makers are advised to design legal frameworks that account for the global nature of the renewable energy challenge and are simultaneously adapted to regional disparities. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.