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Ramaswamy, Vijay; Hielscher, Thomas; Mack, Stephen C.; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Lin, Tong; Pajtler, Kristian W.; Jones, David T. W.; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence M. G.; Aldape, Kenneth; Remke, Marc; Mynarek, Martin; Rutkowski, Stefan; Gururangan, Sridharan; McLendon, Roger E.; Lipp, Eric S.; Dunham, Christopher; Hukin, Juliette; Eisenstat, David D.; Fulton, Dorcas; Landeghem, Frank K. H. van; Santi, Mariarita; Veelen, Marie-Lise C. van; Meir, Erwin G. van; Osuka, Satoru; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M.; Tirapelli, Daniela P. C.; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M.; Marie, Suely K. N.; Carlotti, Carlos G.; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Rao, Amulya A. Nageswara; Giannini, Caterina; Faria, Claudia C.; Nunes, Sofia; Mora, Jaume; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Hauser, Peter; Jabado, Nada; Petrecca, Kevin; Jung, Shin; Massimi, Luca; Zollo, Massimo; Cinalli, Giuseppe; Bognár, László; Klekner, Almos; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Leary, Sarah; Ermoian, Ralph P.; Olson, James M.; Leonard, Jeffrey R.; Gardner, Corrine; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A.; Chambless, Lola B.; Cain, Jason; Eberhart, Charles G.; Ahsan, Sama; Massimino, Maura; Giangaspero, Felice; Buttarelli, Francesca R.; Packer, Roger J.; Emery, Lyndsey; Yong, William H.; Soto, Horacio; Liau, Linda M.; Everson, Richard; Grossbach, Andrew; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Karajannis, Matthias A.; Zagzag, David; Wheeler, Helen; Hoff, Katja von; Alonso, Marta M.; Tuñon, Teresa; Schüller, Ulrich; Zitterbart, Karel; Sterba, Jaroslav; Chan, Jennifer A.; Guzman, Miguel; Elbabaa, Samer K.; Colman, Howard; Dhall, Girish; Fisher, Paul G.; Fouladi, Maryam; Gajjar, Amar; Goldman, Stewart; Hwang, Eugene; Kool, Marcel; Ladha, Harshad; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Wani, Khalida; Lieberman, Frank; Mikkelsen, Tom; Omuro, Antonio M.; Pollack, Ian F.; Prados, Michael; Robins, H. Ian; Soffietti, Riccardo; Wu, Jing; Metellus, Phillipe; Tabori, Uri; Bartels, Ute; Bouffet, Eric; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Rutka, James T.; Dirks, Peter; Pfister, Stefan M.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Armstrong, Terri S.; Korshunov, Andrey; Ellison, David W.; Taylor, Michael D. (2016): Therapeutic Impact of Cytoreductive Surgery and Irradiation of Posterior Fossa Ependymoma in the Molecular Era: A Retrospective Multicohort Analysis. In: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 34, Nr. 21: S. 2468-2477
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Abstract

PurposePosterior fossa ependymoma comprises two distinct molecular variants termed EPN_PFA and EPN_PFB that have a distinct biology and natural history. The therapeutic value of cytoreductive surgery and radiation therapy for posterior fossa ependymoma after accounting for molecular subgroup is not known.MethodsFour independent nonoverlapping retrospective cohorts of posterior fossa ependymomas (n = 820) were profiled using genome-wide methylation arrays. Risk stratification models were designed based on known clinical and newly described molecular biomarkers identified by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses.ResultsMolecular subgroup is a powerful independent predictor of outcome even when accounting for age or treatment regimen. Incompletely resected EPN_PFA ependymomas have a dismal prognosis, with a 5-year progression-free survival ranging from 26.1% to 56.8% across all four cohorts. Although first-line (adjuvant) radiation is clearly beneficial for completely resected EPN_PFA, a substantial proportion of patients with EPN_PFB can be cured with surgery alone, and patients with relapsed EPN_PFB can often be treated successfully with delayed external-beam irradiation.ConclusionThe most impactful biomarker for posterior fossa ependymoma is molecular subgroup affiliation, independent of other demographic or treatment variables. However, both EPN_PFA and EPN_PFB still benefit from increased extent of resection, with the survival rates being particularly poor for subtotally resected EPN_PFA, even with adjuvant radiation therapy. Patients with EPN_PFB who undergo gross total resection are at lower risk for relapse and should be considered for inclusion in a randomized clinical trial of observation alone with radiation reserved for those who experience recurrence.

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