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Wallmeier, Julia; Shiratori, Hidetaka; Dougherty, Gerard W.; Edelbusch, Christine; Hjeij, Rim; Loges, Niki T.; Menchen, Tabea; Olbrich, Heike; Pennekamp, Petra; Raidt, Johanna; Werner, Claudius; Minegishi, Katsura; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Asai, Yasuko; Takaoka, Katsuyoshi; Lee, Chanjae; Griese, Matthias; Memari, Yasin; Durbin, Richard; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Sauer, Sascha; Wallingford, John B.; Hamada, Hiroshi; Omran, Heymut (2016): TTC25 Deficiency Results in Defects of the Outer Dynein Arm Docking Machinery and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia with Left-Right Body Asymmetry Randomization. In: American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 99, No. 2: pp. 460-469
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Multiprotein complexes referred to as outer dynein arms (ODAs) develop the main mechanical force to generate the ciliary and flagellar beat. ODA defects are the most common cause of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a congenital disorder of ciliary beating, characterized by recurrent infections of the upper and lower airways, as well as by progressive lung failure and randomization of left-right body asymmetry. Using a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified recessive loss-of-function mutations within TTC25 in three individuals from two unrelated families affected by PCD. Mice generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technology and carrying a deletion of exons 2 and 3 in Ttc25 presented with laterality defects. Consistently, we observed immotile nodal cilia and missing leftward flow via particle image velocimetry. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis in TTC25-deficient mice revealed an absence of ODAs. Consistent with our findings in mice, we were able to show loss of the ciliary ODAs in humans via TEM and immunofluorescence (IF) analyses. Additionally, IF analyses revealed an absence of the ODA docking complex (ODA-DC), along with its known components CCDC114, CCDC151, and ARMC4. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed interaction between the ODA-DC component CCDC114 and TTC25. Thus, here we report TTC25 as a new member of the ODA-DC machinery in humans and mice.