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Emschermann, Frederic; Zuern, Christine S.; Patzelt, Johannes; Rizas, Konstantinos D.; Jäger, Günter; Eick, Christian; Meuth, Sven G.; Gawaz, Meinrad; Bauer, Axel; Langer, Harald F. (2016): Resistance to renal denervation therapy - Identification of underlying mechanisms by analysis of differential DNA methylation. In: Ijc Heart & Vasculature, Vol. 11: pp. 80-86
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Background: Factors causing resistance to renal denervation (RDN) for treatment of arterial hypertension are not known. In the current study, we sought to determine mechanisms involved in responsiveness to renal denervation therapy in patients with difficult-to-control and resistant hypertension. Methods and results: We evaluated the differential CpG methylation of genes in blood samples isolated from patients of a recently described cohort of responders or non-responders to renal denervation using microarray technique and measured protein levels of identified downstream effectors in blood samples of these patients by ELISA. Our analysis revealed up to 6103 methylation sites differing significantly between non-responders and responders to renal denervation therapy. Software based analysis showed several of these loci to be relevant for arterial hypertension and sympathetic nervous activity. Particularly, genes involved in glutamate synthesis, degradation and glutamate signaling pathways were differently methylated between both groups. For instance, genes for glutamate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 central to glutamate metabolism, genes for ionotropic (AMPA, NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate receptors aswell as glutamate transporters revealed significant differences in methylation correlatingwith responsiveness to RDN. To underline their potential relevance for responsiveness to RDN, we measured plasma protein levels of norepinephrine, a downstream effector of the glutamate receptor pathway, which were significantly lower in non-responders to RDN. Conclusions: The present study describes novel molecular targets potentially contributing to reduction of blood pressure after RDN in some patients. Identifying patients with a high responsiveness to RDN could contribute to an individualized therapy in drug resistant hypertension. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by ELSEVIER.