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Bose, Tanima; Diedrichs-Möhring, Maria; Wildner, Gerhild (2016): Dry eye disease and uveitis: A closer look at immune mechanisms in animal models of two ocular autoimmune diseases. In: Autoimmunity Reviews, Vol. 15, No. 12: pp. 1181-1192
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Understanding the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases is a prerequisite for specific and effective therapeutical intervention. This review focuses on animal models of two common ocular inflammatory diseases, dry eye disease (DED), affecting the ocular surface, and uveitis with inflammation of the inner eye. In both diseases autoimmunity plays an important role, in idiopathic uveitis immune reactivity to intraocular autoantigens is pivotal, while in dry eye disease autoimmunity seems to play a role in one subtype of disease, Sjogren' syndrome (SjS). Comparing the immune mechanisms underlying both eye diseases reveals similarities, and significant differences. Studies have shown genetic predispositions, T and B cell involvement, cytokine and chemokine signatures and signaling pathways as well as environmental influences in both DED and uveitis. Uveitis and DED are heterogeneous diseases and there is no single animal model, which adequately represents both diseases. However, there is evidence to suggest that certain T cell-targeting therapies can be used to treat both, dry eye disease and uveitis. Animal models are essential to autoimmunity research, from the basic understanding of immune mechanisms to the pre-clinical testing of potential new therapies. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.