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Illerhaus, Gerald; Kasenda, Benjamin; Ihorst, Gabriele; Egerer, Gerlinde; Lamprecht, Monika; Keller, Ulrich; Wolf, Hans-Heinrich; Hirt, Carsten; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Binder, Mascha; Hau, Peter; Edinger, Matthias; Frickhofen, Norbert; Bentz, Martin; Möhle, Robert; Röth, Alexander; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Baumgarten, Louisa von; Deckert, Martina; Hader, Claudia; Fricker, Heidi; Valk, Elke; Schorb, Elisabeth; Fritsch, Kristina; Finke, Jürgen (2016): High-dose chemotherapy with autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma: a prospective, single-arm, phase 2 trial. In: Lancet Haematology, Vol. 3, No. 8, E388-E397
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Background High-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy is standard for primary CNS lymphoma, but most patients relapse. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HCT-ASCT) is supposed to overcome the blood-brain barrier and eliminate residual disease in the CNS. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of HCT-ASCT in patients with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma. Methods In this prospective, single-arm, phase 2 trial, we recruited patients aged 18-65 years with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma and immunocompetence, with no limitation on clinical performance status, from 15 hospitals in Germany. Patients received five courses of intravenous rituximab 375 mg/m(2) (7 days before first high-dose methotrexate course and then every 10 days) and four courses of intravenous high-dose methotrexate 8000 mg/m(2) (every 10 days) and then two courses of intravenous rituximab 375 mg/m(2) (day 1), cytarabine 3 g/m(2) (days 2 and 3), and thiotepa 40 mg/m(2) (day 3). 3 weeks after the last course, patients commenced intravenous HCT-ASCT (rituximab 375 mg/m(2) [day 1], carmustine 400 mg/m(2) [day 2], thiotepa 2 x 5 mg/kg [days 3 and 4], and infusion of stem cells [day 7]), irrespective of response status after induction. We restricted radiotherapy to patients without complete response after HCT-ASCT. The primary endpoint was complete response at day 30 after HCT-ASCT in all registered eligible patients who received at least 1 day of study treatment. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials. gov, number NCT00647049. Findings Between Jan 18, 2007, and May 23, 2011, we recruited 81 patients, of whom two (2%) were excluded, therefore we included 79 (98%) patients in the analysis. All patients started induction treatment;73 (92%) commenced HCT-ASCT. 61 (77.2% [95% CI 66.1-86.6]) patients achieved a complete response. During induction treatment, the most common grade 3 toxicity was anaemia (37 [47%]) and the most common grade 4 toxicity was thrombocytopenia (50 [63%]). During HCT-ASCT, the most common grade 3 toxicity was fever (50 [68%] of 73) and the most common grade 4 toxicity was leucopenia (68 [93%] of 73). We recorded four (5%) treatment-related deaths (three [4%] during induction and one [1%] 4 weeks after HCT-ASCT). Interpretation HCT-ASCT with thiotepa and carmustine is an effective treatment option in young patients with newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma, but further comparative studies are needed.