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Hubmann, Max; Fritsch, Susanne; Zoellner, Anna-Katharina; Prevalsek, Dusan; Engel, Nicole; Bücklein, Veit; Mumm, Friederike; Schulz, Christoph; Stemmler, Hans Joachim; Jäger, Gundula; Ledderose, Georg; Kolb, Hans Jochem; Hausmann, Andreas; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Moosmann, Andreas; Tischer, Johanna (2016): Occurrence, risk factors and outcome of adenovirus infection in adult recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In: Journal of Clinical Virology, Vol. 82: pp. 33-40
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Background: Adenovirus (ADV) infections can have a high mortality in immunocompromised patients and are difficult to treat. Objectives and study design: We retrospectively analyzed occurrence and risk factors of ADV infection in 399 adults with hematological disorders undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), focusing on alternative donor transplantation (ADT) and disseminated disease. Results: ADV infection occurred in 42 patients (10.5%). Disease was localized in 18 and disseminated in 6 patients. ADV infection was observed in 15% after ADT, performed in 29% of all recipients, and was less frequent (6%) in T-cell-replete (TCR) haploidentical transplantation using post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY) than in other ADT protocols. Lower age, the use of alternative donor grafts and acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) >= grade II were risk factors for ADV infection. After failure of standard antiviral treatment, three patients with disseminated ADV disease received one dose of ADV-specific T cells, resulting in virological response in 2/3 patients, clearance of ADV viremia in 2/2 patients, and survival of 1/3 patients;both patients with pneumonia died. Conclusions: ADV infection was of moderate occurrence in our adult recipients of allo-HSCT despite a high proportion of potential high-risk patients receiving ADT. TCR strategies using PTCY might limit ADV complications in haploidentical transplantation. Despite feasible adoptive therapy strategies, outcome of disseminated disease remains dismal. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.