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Al-Ahmad, A.; Auschill, T. M.; Dakhel, R.; Wittmer, A.; Pelz, K.; Heumann, C.; Hellwig, E.; Arweiler, N. B. (2016): Prevalence of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis in caries-free and caries-active children in relation to the oral microbiota-a clinical study. In: Clinical Oral investigations, Vol. 20, Nr. 8: S. 1963-1971
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Abstract

The correlation between caries and the oral prevalence of Candida spp. in children is contradictory in literature. Thereby, authors focused on Candida albicans as the most isolated Candida species from the oral cavity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare caries-free and caries-bearing children regarding their oral carriage of Candida spp. Twenty-six caries-free (CF group) and 26 caries-active children (CA group) were included into this study. Three different types of specimens were assessed, saliva and plaque, and in the case of caries, infected dentine samples were microbiologically analyzed for aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms and their counts. Special attention was given to the differentiation between C. albicans and Candida dubliniensis. Additionally, different biochemical tests, VITEK 2 (VITEKA (R) 2, bioM,rieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France) and 16S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing, were applied for identification. The detection of C. albicans did not differ between the CF and CA groups. C. dubliniensis was never detected in any specimen of the CF group, but occurred in one quarter of the CA group (27 % in plaque, 23 % in saliva), thus leading to a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.05). In six of these cases, C. dubliniensis was detected concomitantly in saliva and plaque and once only in plaque. CA group harbored statistically more Streptococcus mutans than the control group revealing a correlation between S. mutans and C. dubliniensis regarding the caries group. This is the first study reporting a frequent detection of C. dubliniensis in caries-active children, which could have been underestimated so far due to difficulties in differentiation between this yeast species and C. albicans. Microbiological diagnostic-especially of oral Candida species-is an important determinant for identifying etiological factors of dental caries in children.