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Mustonen, K.; Karvonen, A. M.; Kirjavainen, P.; Roponen, M.; Schaub, B.; Hyvärinen, A.; Frey, U.; Renz, H.; Pfefferle, P. I.; Genuneit, J.; Vaarala, O.; Pekkanen, J. (2016): Moisture damage in home associates with systemic inflammation in children. In: Indoor Air, Vol. 26, No. 3: pp. 439-447
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Abstract

This study investigated the association between confirmed moisture damage in homes and systemic subclinical inflammation in children. Home inspections were performed in homes of 291 children at the age of 6 years. Subclinical inflammation at the age of 6 years was assessed by measuring the circulating levels of C-reactive protein ( CRP) and leukocytes in peripheral blood and fractional exhaled nitric oxide ( FeNO). Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin ( IL)-1 beta and IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor ( TNF)-alpha were measured in unstimulated, and in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin ( PI), lipopolysaccharide ( LPS), or peptidoglycan ( PPG)-stimulated whole blood. Major moisture damage in the child's main living areas ( living room, kitchen, or child's bedroom) and moisture damage with mold in the bathroom were associated with increased levels of CRP and stimulated production of several proinflammatory cytokines. There were no significant associations between moisture damage/visible mold and leukocyte or FeNO values. The results suggest that moisture damage or mold in home may be associated with increased systemic subclinical inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine responsiveness.