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Thomas, Peter; Weik, Thomas; Roider, Gabriele; Summer, Burkhard and Thomsen, Marc (2016): Influence of Surface Coating on Metal Ion Release: Evaluation in Patients With Metal Allergy. In: Orthopedics, Vol. 39, No. 3: S24-S30

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Nickel, chromium, and cobalt in stainless steel and Cobalt-chrome-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys may induce allergy. The objectives of this study were to evaluate surface coating regarding ion release, patch test reactivity, and arthroplasty performance. Materials and methods included patch test in 31 patients with metal allergy and 30 patients with no allergy to stainless steel and CoCrMo disks that are uncoated or coated by titanium nitride/zirconium nitride (TiN/ZrN). Assessment include atomic absorption spectrometry of released nickel, cobalt, and chromium from the disks after exposure to distilled water, artificial sweat and culture medium. Results showed that both coatings reduced the nickel and chromium release from stainless steel and CoCrMo disks and mostly the cobalt release from the disks (maximally 11.755 mu g/cm(2)/5 d to 1.624 by Ti-N and to 0.442 by ZrN). Six of the 31 patients with metal allergy reacted to uncoated disks, but none reacted to the coated disks. The current authors report on exemplary patients with metal allergy who had symptom relief by revision with surface-coated arthroplasty. The authors concluded that the surface coating may prevent cutaneous and peri-implant allergic reactions.

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