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Holley, S.; Peschel, O. and Graw, M. (2016): Angewandte Kindermodelle in der passiven Fahrzeugsicherheit. Eine Übersicht. In: Rechtsmedizin, Vol. 26, No. 1: pp. 22-28

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Traffic accidents are one of the most frequent non-natural causes of death of children up to the age of 15 years. In the area of passive automotive safety, scientists are keen to reduce the number of injuries and fatalities. Therefore the motion and loading patterns of children involved in traffic accidents are simulated or reconstructed by using crash test dummies or virtual human body models. Based on the results, improvements of passive automotive safety can be achieved. The essential precondition of this approach is the existence of biofidelic human models. This article aims to provide an overview of existing and in-practice applied child models. It illustrates their advantages, their disadvantages, and their potential for further development. For this purpose, the current state of knowledge is summarized by a literature research. With the known crash test dummies, a whole series of models are found, partly whole families, who cover several age groups. The number of numerical human body models, however, is limited. All models have in common that their body size corresponds to the metric data of children of a given age, but their geometry and biomechanically relevant properties are scaled down or taken directly from adults. To reduce the injury and mortality risk of children in traffic, it is necessary to further develop child models that are as close as possible to the real human body. For this, knowledge gaps must be filled concerning both the material properties and the child's geometry.

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