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Schlenk, Richard F.; Lübbert, Michael; Benner, Axel; Lamparter, Alexander; Krauter, Jürgen; Herr, Wolfgang; Martin, Hans; Salih, Helmut R.; Kündgen, Andrea; Horst, Heinz-A.; Brossart, Peter; Götze, Katharina; Nachbaur, David; Wattad, Mohammed; Köhne, Claus-Henning; Fiedler, Walter; Bentz, Martin; Wulf, Gerald; Held, Gerhard; Hertenstein, Bernd; Salwender, Hans; Gaidzik, Verena I.; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Weber, Daniela; Döhner, Konstanze; Ganser, Arnold; Döhner, Hartmut (2016): All-trans retinoic acid as adjunct to intensive treatment in younger adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia: results of the randomized AMLSG 07-04 study. In: Annals of Hematology, Vol. 95, No. 12: pp. 1931-1942
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The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the impact of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in combination with chemotherapy and to assess the NPM1 status as biomarker for ATRA therapy in younger adult patients (18-60 years) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients were randomized for intensive chemotherapy with or without open-label ATRA (45 mg/m(2), days 6-8;15 mg/m(2), days 9-21). Two cycles of induction therapy were followed by risk-adapted consolidation with high-dose cytarabine or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Due to the open label character of the study, analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) and a per-protocol (PP) basis. One thousand one hundred patients were randomized (556, STANDARD;544, ATRA) with 38 patients treated vice versa. Median follow-up for survival was 5.2 years. ITT analyses revealed no difference between ATRA and STANDARD for the total cohort and for the subset of NPM1-mutated AML with respect to event-free (EFS;p = 0.93, p = 0.17) and overall survival (OS;p = 0.24 and p = 0.32, respectively). Pre-specified PP analyses revealed better EFS in NPM1-mutated AML (p = 0.05) and better OS in the total cohort (p = 0.03). Explorative subgroup analyses on an ITT basis revealed better OS (p = 0.05) in ATRA for genetic low-risk patients according to ELN recommendations. The clinical trial is registered at clinicaltrialsregister.eu (EudraCT Number: 2004-004321-95).