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Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Wagner, Ferdinand; Martine, Laure Christine; Reppenhagen, Stephan; Rudert, Maximilian; Schuetz, Michael; Denham, Jim; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten and Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner (2016): Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in musculoskeletal oncology. In: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, Vol. 35, No. 3: pp. 475-487

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Currently used surgical techniques to reconstruct tissue defects after resection of musculoskeletal tumours are associated with high complication rates. This drives a strong demand for innovative therapeutic concepts that are able to improve the clinical outcomes of patients suffering from bone and soft tissue tumours. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TE&RM) provides a technology platform based on biochemical, molecular, cellular and biomaterials modules to selectively direct tissue healing processes for improved defect regeneration. At the same time, precautionary measures have to be taken when these instruments are used in cancer patients to prevent any promotion of tumour growth or metastatic spread. On the other hand, several innovative TE&RM tools are being developed such as multi-functionalized biomaterials, drug-delivering nanomaterials or genetically engineered stem cells that per se have the potential to mediate anti-cancer effects, act synergistically with currently used chemotherapeutics and/or radiotherapy regimens and reduce their side effects. Recently, scientists became conscious that TE&RM strategies may not only be utilized to advance contemporary tissue reconstruction techniques but also to develop personalized diagnostic tools and clinically relevant disease models for cancer patients. Eventually, prospective randomized clinical trials combined with comparative outcome analyses are a conditio sine qua non to shape the benefits of personalized regenerative therapies for the standardized management of patients with musculoskeletal tumours.

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