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Deplanche, Martine; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Semenovskaya, Ksenia; Fu, Chih-Lung; Dessauge, Frederic; Finot, Laurence; Petzl, Wolfram; Zerbe, Holm; Loir, Yves le; Rainard, Pascal; Smith, David G. E.; Germon, Pierre; Otto, Michael and Berkova, Nadia (2016): Staphylococcus aureus Phenol-Soluble Modulins Impair Interleukin Expression in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells. In: Infection and Immunity, Vol. 84, No. 6: pp. 1682-1692

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The role of the recently described interleukin-32 (IL-32) in Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is unclear. We determined expression of IL-32, IL-6, and IL-8 in S. aureus-and Escherichia coli-infected bovine mammary gland epithelial cells. Using live bacteria, we found that in S. aureus-infected cells, induction of IL-6 and IL-8 expression was less pronounced than in E. coli-infected cells. Notably, IL-32 expression was decreased in S. aureus-infected cells, while it was increased in E. coli-infected cells. We identified the staphylococcal phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides as key contributors to these effects, as IL-32, IL-6, and IL-8 expression by epithelial cells exposed to psm mutant strains was significantly increased compared to that in cells exposed to the isogenic S. aureus wild-type strain, indicating that PSMs inhibit the production of these interleukins. The use of genetically complemented strains confirmed this observation. Inasmuch as the decreased expression of IL-32, which is involved in dendritic cell maturation, impairs immune responses, our results support a PSM-dependent mechanism that allows for the development of chronic S. aureus-related mastitis.

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