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Popović, Natalija Topić; Strunjak-Perović, Ivancica; Barišić, Josip; Kepec, Slavko; Jadan, Margita; Beer-Ljubić, Blanka; Matijatko, Vesna; Palić, Dušan; Klobucar, Goran; Babić, Sanja; Kljusurić, Jasenka Gajdoš; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra (2016): Native Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) health status, biochemical and histological responses to treated wastewaters. In: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 218: pp. 689-701
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of treated wastewaters on native wild Prussian carp inhabiting effluent-receiving waters (ERC) receiving municipal and sugar plant treated wastewaters, further downstream waters (DW), and a detached canal unaffected by the WWTP activities. To that end, general fish health status was determined, including plasma biochemical, haematological, oxidative stress and tissue histopathological indices, over three seasons. The greatest tissue alterations were in fall in ERC during sugar beet processing, as hypertrophy of gill epithelial and interlamellar cells, necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of renal tubules, distention of hepatic sinusoids. In fall the lowest leukocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes (2467 +/- 565, 1333 +/- 264, 1133 +/- 488 cells/mu L respectively), as well as highest plasma ALP (52.7 +/- 19.39 U/L) were measured. ERC in fall had the highest ammonium (20 mg/L), nitrite (1.48 mg/L), nitrate (13.4 mg/L), and lowest dissolved O-2 (1.23 mg/L). Gill, kidney and liver alterations, and the highest plasma cholesterol (9.1 +/- 1.98 mmol/L) were noted in DW fish in fall. Tissue morphology during sugar cane processing seems a consequence of cellular and structural tissue integrity loss. Structural heterogeneity of gills and spleen was enhanced with increasing concentrations of heavy metals and correlated with oxidative stress (SOD 392.5 +/- 77.28 U/L). Monogenean infestation was moderate in ERC fish in all seasons compared with DW fish. Prussian carp biological responses to multiple stressors, measured by the effects of WWTP on blood and tissue parameters, reached far downstream and were not of localized nature. This study demonstrated that in aquatic environments impacted with complex contaminants acting synergistically, causal relationships between biological responses and environmental stressors should be interpreted. Integrated histopathological, haematological and biochemical findings are valuable biomarkers for native fish adaptive patterns and monitoring of water quality/pollution of freshwater ecosystems. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.