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Jovanović, Boris; Cvetković, Vladimir J.; Mitrović, Tatjana L. J. (2016): Effects of human food grade titanium dioxide nanoparticle dietary exposure on Drosophila melanogaster survival, fecundity, pupation and expression of antioxidant genes. In: Chemosphere, Vol. 144: pp. 43-49
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Abstract

The fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster was exposed to the human food grade of E171 titanium dioxide (TiO2). This is a special grade of TiO2 which is frequently omitted in nanotoxicology studies dealing with Ti02, yet it is the most relevant grade regarding oral exposure of humans. D. melanogaster larvae were exposed to 0.002 mg mL(-1), 0.02 mg mL(-1), 0.2 mg mL(-1), and 2 mg mL(-1) of TiO2 in feeding medium, and the survival, fecundity, pupation time, and expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response were monitored. TiO2 did not affect survival but significantly increased time to pupation (p < 0.001). Fecundity of D. melanogaster was unaffected by the treatment. Expression of the gene for catalase was markedly downregulated by the treatment, while the effect on the downregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 was less pronounced. After four days of dietary exposure TiO2 was present in a significant amount in larvae, but was not transferred to adults during metamorphosis. Two individuals with aberrant phenotype similar to previously described gold nanoparticles induced mutant phenotypes were detected in the group exposed to TiO2. In general, TiO2 showed little toxicity toward D. melanogaster at concentrations relevant to oral exposure of humans.(c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.