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Pieper, Korbinian (2016): Perioperative Schmerztherapie bei Hund und Katze – eine Übersicht. In: Tieraerztliche Praxis Ausgabe Kleintiere Heimtiere, Vol. 44, No. 3: pp. 200-208

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Undermanaged pain leads to negative systemic effects that may greatly disturb our patients' welfare. Therefore, a pain assessment tool should be routinely implemented into clinical practice. Validated pain assessment tools are available for dogs and cats. Advanced analgesic therapy follows the principle of a multimodal approach. This means that different analgesic drugs, which act on different targets within the nociceptive pathway, are combined to achieve the desired analgesic effects. In addition to opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and local anaesthetics, alpha(2)-receptor-agonists, ketamine and gabapentin as well as different nonpharmacologic analgesic techniques are used within the framework of a multimodal analgesic plan.

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