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Ballhausen, Bianca D.; Geisweidl, Kathrin; Hartmann, Katrin; Hirschbergerl, Johannes; Majzoub, Monir; Schulz, Bianka (2016): Systemic Acremonium species infection in a dog. In: Tieraerztliche Praxis Ausgabe Kleintiere Heimtiere, Vol. 44, No. 6: pp. 424-428
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Abstract

A 2-year-old female Magyar Viszla was referred with fever, lethargy, polyuria/polydipsia, and suspected systemic cryptococcosis. At presentation increased rectal temperature and enlarged lymph nodes were detected. Main laboratory abnormalities included lymphocytosis, eosinophilia, and mildly reduced urine specific gravity. Abdominal ultrasound was unremarkable. Lymph node cytology revealed mycotic infection. Acremonium species was isolated from urine as well as from a popliteal lymph node by fungal culture. Therapy with itraconazol (10 mg/kg p. o. q 12 h) was initiated based on susceptibility testing, but dosage had to be reduced by half due to adverse effects. Despite treatment, the dog developed progressive azotemia. Four months after initial presentation, the patient showed anorexia, lethargy, weight loss, diarrhea, vomitus, neurological signs, and severe azotemia and was euthanized. Acremonium species are emerging opportunistic mould fungi that can represent a potential threat for immuno-compromised humans. In dogs, only two cases of systemic infection with this fungal species have been reported so far. This case highlights the fact that systemic fungal infections should be considered as a differential in cases of fever and lymphadenopathy.