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Vanzella, E.; Barros, S. de; Cupani, G.; Karman, W.; Gronke, M.; Balestra, I.; Coe, D.; Mignoli, M.; Brusa, M.; Calura, F.; Caminha, G.-B.; Caputi, K.; Castellano, M.; Christensen, L.; Comastri, A.; Cristiani, S.; Dijkstra, M.; Fontana, A.; Giallongo, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Gilli, R.; Grazian, A.; Grillo, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Meneghetti, M.; Nonino, M.; Pentericci, L.; Rosati, P.; Schaerer, D.; Verhamme, A.; Vignali, C. and Zamorani, G. (2016): High-resolution spectroscopy of a young, low-metallicity optically thin L=0.02L star-forming galaxy at z=3.12. In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 821, No. 2, L27

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We present VLT/X-Shooter and MUSE spectroscopy of a faint F814W = 28.60 +/- 0.33 (M-UV = -17.0), low-mass (less than or similar to 10(7)M(circle dot)), and compact (R-eff = 62 pc) freshly star-forming galaxy at z = 3.1169 magnified (16x) by the Hubble Frontier Fields galaxy cluster Abell S1063. Gravitational lensing allows for a significant jump toward lowluminosity regimes, in moderately high-resolution spectroscopy (R = lambda/d lambda similar to 3000-7400). We measured C IV lambda 1548, 1550, He II lambda 1640, OIII] lambda 1661, 1666, CIII]lambda lambda 1907, 1909, H beta, [O III] lambda lambda 4959, 5007 emission lines with FWHM less than or similar to 50 km s(-1) and (de-lensed) fluxes spanning the interval 1.0 x 10(-19)-2 x 10(-18) erg s(-1) cm(-2) at signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 4-30. The double-peaked Ly alpha emission with Delta v(red -blue) = 280(+/- 7) km s(-1) and delensed fluxes 2.4((blue))vertical bar 8.5((red)) x 10(-18) erg s(-1) cm(-2) (S/N = 38((blue))vertical bar 110((red)) indicate a low column density of neutral hydrogen gas consistent with a highly ionized interstellar medium as also inferred from the large [O III]lambda 5007/[O II] lambda 3727 > 10 ratio. We detect C IV lambda 1548, 1550 resonant doublet in emission, each component with FWHM less than or similar to 45 km s(-1) and redshifted by + 51(+/- 10) km s(-1) relative to the systemic redshift. We interpret this as nebular emission tracing an expanding optically thin interstellar medium. Both C IV lambda 1548, 1550 and He II lambda 1640 suggest the presence of hot and massive stars (with a possible faint active galactic nucleus). The ultraviolet slope is remarkably blue, beta = -2.95 +/- 0.20 (F-lambda = lambda(beta)), consistent with a dust-free and young less than or similar to 20 Myr galaxy. Line ratios suggest an oxygen abundance 12 + log(O/H) < 7.8. We are witnessing an early episode of star formation in which a relatively low N-H I and negligible dust attenuation might favor a leakage of ionizing radiation. This galaxy currently represents a unique low-luminosity reference object for future studies of the reionization epoch with the James Webb Space Telescope.

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