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Zeiher, Johannes; Bijnen, Rick van; Schauß, Peter; Hild, Sebastian; Choi, Jae-Yoon; Pohl, Thomas; Bloch, Immanuel and Gross, Christian (2016): Many-body interferometry of a Rydberg-dressed spin lattice. In: Nature Physics, Vol. 12, No. 12: pp. 1095-1099

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Ultracold atoms in optical lattices are ideal to study fundamentally new quantum many-body systems(1,2) including frustrated or topological magnetic phases(3,4) and supersolids(5,6). However, the necessary control of strong long-range interactions between distant ground state atoms has remained a long-standing goal. Optical dressing of ground state atoms via off-resonant laser coupling to Rydberg states is one way to tailor such interactions(5-8). Here we report the realization of coherent Rydberg dressing to implement a two-dimensional synthetic spin lattice. Our single-atom-resolved interferometric measurements of the many-body dynamics enable the microscopic probing of the interactions and reveal their highly tunable range and anisotropy. Our work marks the first step towards the use of laser-controlledRydberg interactions for the study of exotic quantum magnets(3,4,9) in optical lattices.

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