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Pan, Fei; Su, Yen-Hao; Augusto, James; Hwang, Weng-Sing and Chen, Hao-Long (2016): Optical inclusion transformation with different amount of cerium addition during solidification of SS400 steel. In: Optical and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 48, No. 12, 536

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With the amount of Ce increased from 5 to 100 ppm, that of oxygen increased from 5 to 25 ppm and that of sulfur increased from 5 to 25 ppm, the transformation of the main inclusions formed in liquid SS400 steel could be predicted by applying thermodynamic calculation especially FactSage. Ce2O3 is a stable inclusion when steels containing cerium cooled down from high temperature and CeO is an easily formed inclusion when steels melt at a very high temperature 1873 K. The transformation mechanism of inclusions during steel solidification are gained from thermodynamic calculation by using FactSage. The conditions for the transformation from Ce2O3 to Ce2S3 and from CeO to Ce2O3 or CeS are also concluded and discussed in the research.

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