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Croze, Myriam; Zivkovic, Daniel; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan (2016): Balancing selection on immunity genes: review of the current literature and new analysis in Drosophila melanogaster. In: Zoology, Vol. 119, No. 4: pp. 322-329
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Abstract

Balancing selection has been widely assumed to be an important evolutionary force, yet even today little is known about its abundance and its impact on the patterns of genetic diversity. Several studies have shown examples of balancing selection in humans, plants or parasites, and many genes under balancing selection are involved in immunity. It has been proposed that host-parasite coevolution is one of the main forces driving immune genes to evolve under balancing selection. In this paper, we review the literature on balancing selection on immunity genes in several organisms, including Drosophila. Furthermore, we performed a genome scan for balancing selection in an African population of Drosophila melanogaster using coalescent simulations of a demographic model with and without selection. We find very few genes under balancing selection and only one novel candidate gene related to immunity. Finally, we discuss the possible causes of the low number of genes under balancing selection. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.