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Chioato, Zoe L.; Klapötke, Thomas M.; Mieskes, Frank; Stierstorfer, Jörg; Weyrauther, Michael (2016): (Picrylamino)-1,2,4-triazole Derivatives - Thermally Stable Explosives. In: European Journal of inorganic Chemistry, No. 7: pp. 956-962
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Abstract

3-(Picrylamino)-1,2,4-triazole (PATO) and 3-amino-5-(picrylamino)-1,2,4-triazole (APATO) were synthesized and analyzed. During the syntheses of the compounds, two interesting side-products were isolated. The reactions of PATO and APATO with different nitrogen-rich bases, such as ammonia, hydrazine, triethylamine, and triaminoguanidine, resulted in the deprotonation of both triazole compounds and the formation of the corresponding salts (cation/anion ratio = 1:1). The compounds were obtained at ambient temperature in H2O or EtOH as qualitatively pure products with the characteristic properties of secondary explosives. The compounds were characterized by multinuclear NMR, IR, and Raman spectroscopy as well as mass spectrometry. The low-temperature structures of two compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermal stabilities were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The sensitivities were determined through the BAM drophammer and friction tests. The heats of formation were calculated by the atomization method from the CBS-4M enthalpies and the densities determined by X-ray diffraction or pycnometry. Several detonation parameters including the detonation pressure, detonation velocity, detonation energy, and detonation temperature were computed with the EXPLO5 code.