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Klapötke, Thomas M.; Witkowski, Tomasz G.; Wilk, Zenon; Hadzik, Justyna (2016): Experimental Study on the Heat Resistant Explosive 5,5 '-Bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-2,2 '-bi(1,3,4-oxadiazole) (TKX-55): the Jet Penetration Capability and Underwater Explosion Performance. In: Central European Journal of Energetic Materials, Vol. 13, No. 4: pp. 821-837
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Ongoing research to find new explosives which are stable at high temperatures focuses on compounds which comply with the strict requirements which must be fulfilled in order for a compound to be of use in deep oil-well and gas drilling applications. Great efforts have been focused on the development of new, thermally stable explosives which are stable at even higher temperatures than hexanitrostilbene, and which also show superior performance. In the group of recently synthesized thermally stable explosives, 5,5'-bis(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)2,2'-bi(1,3,4-oxadiazole) (TKX-55) is one of the most promising prospective candidates for use in practical applications, due to its physicochemical properties as well as its convenient synthesis. Therefore, further investigation into the performance of TKX-55 in shaped charge applications was undertaken. This study was focused on the investigation of the jet penetration capability of conical shaped charges filled with TKX-55, in comparison with recently used other explosives. The kinetic energy of the jet depends on the brisance of the explosive which is used. In order to experimentally investigate the shattering effect of TKX-55, the Underwater Explosion Test was applied. Based on the collected data, the total energy, as the sum of the primary shock wave energy (the brisance) and the bubble gas energy (the heaving effect), was calculated.