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Bentlohner, Manuel M.; Waibel, Markus; Zeller, Patrick; Sarkar, Kuhu; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, Dina; Fässler, Thomas F. (2016): Zintl Clusters as Wet-Chemical Precursors for Germanium Nanomorphologies with Tunable Composition. In: Angewandte Chemie-international Edition, Vol. 55, No. 7: pp. 2441-2445
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[Ge9] (-)(4) Zintl clusters are used as soluble germanium source for a bottom-up fabrication of Ge nanomorphologies such as inverse opal structures with tunable composition. The method is based on the assembly and oxidation of [Ge9] (-)(4) clusters in a template mold using SiCl4, GeCl4, and PCl3 leading to Si and P-containing Ge phases as shown by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. [Ge9] (-)(4) clusters are retained using ethylenediamine (en) as a transfer medium to a mold after removal of the solvent if water is thoroughly excluded, but are oxidized to amorphous Ge in presence of water traces. (HNMR)-H-1 spectroscopy reveals the oxidative deprotonation of en by [Ge9] (--)(4). Subsequent annealing leads to crystalline Ge. As an example for wet-chemical synthesis of complex Ge nanomorphologies, we describe the fabrication of undoped and P-doped inverse opal-structured Ge films with a rather low oxygen contents. The morphology of the films with regular volume porosity is characterized by SEM, TEM, and grazing incidence smallangle X-ray scattering.