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Yousefi, Nafiseh; Zarre, Shahin and Heubl, Günther (2016): Molecular phylogeny of the mainly Mediterranean genera Chaenorhinum, Kickxia and Nanorrhinum (Plantaginaceae, tribe Antirrhineae), with focus on taxa in the Flora Iranica region. In: Nordic Journal of Botany, Vol. 34, No. 4: pp. 455-463

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Plantaginaceae tribe Antirrhineae as revised by Sutton (1988) comprises about 30 genera that have undergone significant taxonomic changes in recent years, many of which have yet to be assessed by detailed phylogenetic analyses, including Kickxia, Nanorrhinum and Chaenorhinum. To examine the monophyly, relationships and rank of Kickxia, Nanorrhinum and Chaenorhinum, we conducted a phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and chloroplast DNA (rpl32-trnL) sequence data, with special focus on the Flora Iranica region. We sampled 22 species of Kickxia s.l. (16 of Kickxia s. s. and 6 of Nanorrhinum), 2 species of Anarrhinum, 12 species of Chaenorhinum, 19 representatives of nine additional genera of Antirrhineae, and several outgroup taxa representing other genera of Plantaginaceae. Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the two datasets produced almost congruent trees, although taxon sampling differed. Our results indicate that Chaenorhinum can be subdivided into two highly supported groups of species, partially matching two of the currently recognized sections of the genus. Albraunia and Holzneria are nested within the Chaenorhinum clade and should not be recognized as distinct genera. Two clades corresponding to Kickxia sect. Kickxia and Kickxia sect. Valvatae were also highly supported. Our data, whn combined with all other available evidence, support recognition of the clade comprising Kickxia sect. Valvatae at the genus level, as Nanorrhinum. Based on this result, six names are here transferred to Nanorrhinum. A diagnostic key to the seven genera of tribe Antirrhineae known from the Flora Iranica region is also provided.

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