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Kienberger, Karen; Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Padula, Vinicius; Gosliner, Terrence M.; Lucas Cervera, Juan (2016): Aeolidia papillosa (Linnaeus, 1761) (Mollusca: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia), single species or a cryptic species complex? A morphological and molecular study. In: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 177, No. 3: pp. 481-506
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Abstract

Aeolidia papillosa (Linnaeus, ) is a well-known aeolidiid species that has been reported to have a worldwide distribution in cold-temperate waters, mainly from the northern hemisphere. Molecular tools have recently shown that most cosmopolitan species usually belong to a taxonomic species complex. Here we used integrative taxonomy to test the range of distribution of A.papillosa, and to assess the existence of a putative species complex that has been traditionally included as a single species under the name A.papillosa. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses of partial DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochromec oxidase subunitI and 16S rRNA genes, and the nuclear gene histone3, were used to infer phylogenetic trees. Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) species delimitation analyses and morphological study complemented the phylogenetic approach. Our results show that A.papillosa is a cosmopolitan and an amphi-Atlantic species, being distributed in the eastern and western Atlantic as well as in the eastern Pacific;however, some specimens from the UK and the Netherlands, together with specimens from Portugal, Galicia, and France, as well as the Californian and Oregon populations, emerge as two pseudocryptic species described herein: Aeolidia filomenaesp.nov. and Aeolidia louisp.nov., respectively. Finally, the specimens from Chilean coasts, previously attributed to A.papillosa, belong to a different species, Aeolidia campbellii (Cunningham, ), that is a senior synonym of Aeolidia serotina Bergh, . 1873