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Anton, Roland F.; Schories, Dirk; Jörger, Katharina M.; Kaligis, Fontje; Schrödl, Michael (2016): Description of four new endoparasitic species of the family Splanchnotrophidae (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida) from nudibranch and sacoglossan gastropod hosts. In: Marine Biodiversity, Vol. 46, No. 1: pp. 183-195
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Abstract

The Splanchnotrophidae are a worldwide-distributed family of endoparasitic copepods, utilising shell-less opisthobranch gastropod hosts. Using scanning electron microscopy, we describe three new Ismaila Bergh, 1867 species infesting nudibranch hosts from southern Chile. Ismaila volatilis spec. nov. infests the proctonotid Janolus sp. and differs from all congeners by the size and number of dorsal bulges, the number of processes on the maxilla, and the thickness of thoracic appendages. Ismaila chaihuiensis spec. nov. was found in the doridoidean Diaulula punctuolata (D'Orbigny, 1837) and is diagnosed by a pore situated on a prominent bulge above the labrum. Ismaila genalis spec. nov. from a polycerid Holoplocamus papposus Odhner, 1926 host differs from its congeners in the size and form of the ventral bulges present on the head. These discoveries further broaden the range of splanchnotrophid host taxa;they are in line with earlier hypotheses of strict host specificity of Ismaila species and support Chile as a hotspot for Ismaila radiation. Herein, we present a key to the identification of all 14 Ismaila species. In Sulawesi (tropical Indo-West Pacific), Arthurius gibbosa spec. nov. infests the sacoglossan Elysia macnaei Marcus, 1982. The new species differs from both congeners by the short and stubby dorsal bulges. Uniquely among splanchnotrophids, long thoracic appendages are absent. Arthurius Huys, 2001 thus is the morphologically most divergent genus of the Splanchnotrophidae, but it is well characterized by the loss of several mouthparts and the preference for sacoglossan hosts. Currently, the distribution of the genus is limited to the Indo-West Pacific.