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Patzak, Simon D. F.; Renner, Matt A. M.; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Feldberg, Kathrin; Heslewood, Margaret M.; Peralta, Denilson F.; Matos de Souza, Aline; Schneider, Harald; Heinrichs, Jochen (2016): A phylogeny of Lophocoleaceae-Plagiochilaceae-Brevianthaceae and a revised classification of Plagiochilaceae. In: Organisms Diversity & Evolution, Vol. 16, No. 3: pp. 481-495
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Abstract

The Lophocoleaceae-Plagiochilaceae-Brevianthaceae clade is a largely terrestrial, subcosmopolitan lineage of jungermannialean leafy liverworts that may include significantly more than 1000 species. Here we present the most comprehensively sampled phylogeny available to date based on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and the chloroplast markers rbcL and rps4 of 372 accessions. Brevianthaceae (consisting of Brevianthus and Tetracymbaliella) form a sister relationship with Lophocoleaceae;this lineage is in turn sister to Plagiochilaceae. Plagiochila is resolved monophyletic subsequent to exclusion of Plagiochila radiculosa;this species is placed in a new genus Cryptoplagiochila. Chiastocaulon and a polyphyletic Acrochila nest in Plagiochilion;these three genera are united under Chiastocaulon to include the Plagiochilaceae species with dominating or exclusively ventral branching. The generic classification of the Lophocoleaceae is still unresolved. We discuss alternative approaches to obtain strictly monophyletic genera by visualizing their consistence with the obtained consensus topology. The presented phylogeny will serve as a basis for follow-up studies including several thousand accessions. These studies will enable revision of current hypotheses on species diversity and distribution of Lophocoleaceae-Plagiochilaceae-Brevianthaceae and allow for a reconstruction of their evolution in time and space.