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Kevrekidis, Charalampos; Mol, Dick (2016): A new partial skeleton of Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus Falconer and Cautley, 1847 (Proboscidea, Elephantidae) from Amyntaio, Macedonia, Greece. In: Quaternary international, Vol. 406: pp. 35-56
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Abstract

Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus is a well-known elephant species of the Middle and Late Pleistocene of Europe, but few skeletons so far have been described in detail. Here we present a detailed account of a partial skeleton in good condition from the alluvial sands of the Amyntaio coal mines, Macedonia, Greece. It represents a large male aged in its forties. Based on extant and extinct elephant specimens, the Amyntaio's elephant estimated height at the shoulder is 3.5 m and its weight close to 9 tonnes. A CT scan was performed on the deformed fifth metacarpal which was diagnosed with osteomyelitis, probably rendering the animal lame. No signs of further biologically induced ante-or post-mortem modifications were detected. From that skeleton the first known basihyoid bone of E. antiquus is recovered;comparisons with homologous bones of other elephantid taxa show it has a very distinct morphology and can be used in phylogenetic studies of the Elephantidae family. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.