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Ernst, Andrej; Seuss, Barbara; Taylor, Paul D.; Nützel, Alexander (2016): Bryozoan fauna of the Boggy Formation (Deese Group, Pennsylvanian) of the Buckhorn Asphalt Quarry, Oklahoma, USA. In: Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, Vol. 96, No. 4: pp. 517-540
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Abstract

The Middle to Upper Pennsylvanian Buckhorn Asphalt Quarry (Boggy Formation, Deese Group) of Oklahoma, USA, is well known for its exceptionally preserved fauna of marine invertebrates, including conservation of original skeletal aragonite. Here, we describe for the first time the taxonomy of the Buckhorn bryozoans, recognising nine species, two of which are new: Stenophragmidium buckhornensis sp. nov. and Streblotrypa (Streblotrypa) heltzelae sp. nov. Two further species, Stenoporella sp. and Spinofenestella sp., are described in open nomenclature. The other species show relationships to the Pennsylvanian of the USA and Russia. The genera Shishoviclema and Shulgapora are identified for the first time in North America. Superior preservation of the Buckhorn bryozoans allows some new and poorly known skeletal characters to be described. These include nanoperforations, granule bands, mural spines, spinose hemiphragms and transverse fibrous wall fabric. Nanoperforations, found in the skeletal walls of several Buckhorn bryozoan species, are tiny holes around which laminae are deflected, indicating that they are not post-mortem structures. However, it is unclear whether they are features of the bryozoans or have resulted from the presence of microsymbionts. The primary wall layer of the fenestrate Septopora blanda Moore, 1929 is apparently composed of transverse fibrous crystallites, a skeletal fabric previously known only in post-Palaeozoic cyclostomes.