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Chigbu, Chibuike Ogwuegbu; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Aniebue, Uzochukwu U.; Berger, Ursula (2018): Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of adult obesity: A large representative household survey in a resource-constrained African setting with double burden of undernutrition and overnutrition. In: Journal of epidemiology and community health
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Abstract

BACKGROUND The obesity epidemic has continued to spread across the globe involving even poor nations of the world. METHOD Household population survey of adults aged 20-60 years. Multistage stratified cluster randomised sampling involving both urban and rural statewide representative population samples. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard methods. Prevalences were weighted and multinomial regression analyses were done. RESULTS A total of 6628 individuals from 2843 households were surveyed. The weighted overall prevalence for underweight was 9.1% (95% CI 8.1 to 10.1), 65.1% (95% CI 63.6 to 66.6) for normal weight, 19.0% (95% CI 17.8 to 20.3) for overweight and 6.8% (95% CI 6.0 to 7.5) for obese. Men were less likely to be overweight (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.92) and obese (AOR 0.24; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.31) than women. Urban residents were more likely to be overweight (AOR 1.42; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.71) and obese (AOR 2.09; 95% CI 1.58 to 2.76) than rural residents. Each additional 1-year increase in age increased the risk of overweight by 1.012 (AOR 1.012; 95% CI 1.005 to 1.018) and that of obesity by 1.03 (AOR 1.03; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.04). The low-income class was less likely to be overweight (AOR 0.694; 95% CI 0.507 to 0.951) and obese (AOR 0.44; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.67). CONCLUSION The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Enugu Nigeria is high and fast approaching that of underweight. Women, urban dwellers, older adults and high-income earners are at higher risk for obesity and overweight. The study provides robust information for public health policies towards the prevention of obesity in Nigeria.