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Tritschler, S.; Erdelkamp, R.; Stief, C.; Hentrich, M. (2017): Neuroendokrines Prostatakarzinom. In: Urologe, Vol. 56, No. 11: pp. 1475-1483
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Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) mostly occurs as a treatment-emergent adaptive response under the pressure of intensive androgen deprivation treatment (t-NEPC). Approximately 30-40% of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) also have neuroendocrine involvement. In contrast primary small cell prostate cancer is very rare (< 1%). A taEuroNEPC should be clinically suspected in patients who have particularly aggressive mCRPC but a disproportionately low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and elevated neuroendocrine tumor markers, such as chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase. The initial Gleason score was shown to be an independent factor correlated to the risk of development of taEuroNEPC. Treatment is oriented to that of small cell lung cancer. In patients with negative PSA levels, chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide is the first line treatment, for which response rates in the range of 30-60% with a median survival time of usually less than 1 year can be achieved. In patients with much higher serum PSA levels, chemotherapy with carboplatin plus docetaxel should be considered.