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Thorsteinsdottir, Jun; Stangl, Stefan; Fu, Peng; Guo, Ketai; Albrecht, Valerie; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Erl, Janina; Gehrmann, Mathias; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Multhoff, Gabriele; Schichor, Christian (2017): Overexpression of cytosolic, plasma membrane bound and extracellular heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in primary glioblastomas. In: Journal of Neuro-Oncology, Vol. 135, Nr. 3: S. 443-452
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Abstract

A unique feature in several non-CNS-tumors is the overexpression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, HSPA1A) in the cytosol, but also its unusual plasma membrane expression and release. Although in gliomas, cytosolic Hsp70 levels are not associated with histological grading, the role of membrane bound and released Hsp70 is still completely unknown. Membrane bound as well as cytosolic Hsp70 can be detected in viable tumor cells with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) cmHsp70.1. Herein, we analysed membrane bound Hsp70 levels in primary and secondary gliomas of different grades and on isolated glioma subpopulations (endothelial cells, CD133-positive cells, primary cultures) by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry using cmHsp70.1 mAb. Extracellular Hsp70 was determined by a commercial Hsp70 sandwich ELISA (R&D) in plasma samples of glioblastoma patients and healthy volunteers. We found an overexpression of Hsp70 in primary glioblastomas compared to low-grade, anaplastic, or secondary gliomas as determined by immunohistochemistry. Especially in flow cytometry, a strong plasma membrane Hsp70 expression was only observed in primary but not secondary glioblastomas. Within the heterogeneous tumor mass, CD133-positive tumor-initiating and primary glioblastoma cells showed a high membrane Hsp70 expression density, whereas endothelial cells, isolated from glioblastoma tissues only showed a weak staining pattern. Also in plasma samples, secreted Hsp70 protein was significantly increased in patients harbouring primary glioblastomas compared to those with secondary and low grade glioblastomas. Taken together, we show for the first time that cytosolic, membrane bound and extracellular Hsp70 is uniquely overexpressed in primary glioblastomas.